Native American Tribes Nations and Confederacies: Fox

Sac and Fox are closely related Native Americans of the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock. Sac and Fox culture was typical of the Eastern Woodlands area, with some Plains traits. For a long period of time they dwelt around Saginaw Bay in Eastern Michigan, but in the early 17th century they were driven from it by the allied Ottawa and Neutral groups. The Sac and The Fox fled across the Strait of Mackinac, then into what is modern day Wisconsin.

The Sac were enterprising farmers but spent most of their time hunting and raiding, despite which they never developed a soldier society to the degree of The Fox. The Fox were fierce warriors and constantly waged war with the Ojibwa. Together, the Sac and Fox fought wars against the Sioux and the Illinois, as well as the French. The French, harassed by the Fox, waged a war of extermination and by 1730 they had reduced the Fox to a mere handful. The remnants of the tribe incorporated with their long-standing allies, the Sac, and from that time the two tribes have been known collectively as The Sac and Fox.

After a war with the Illinois, The Sac and Fox moved into their territory. In 1804 a fraudulent treaty was extracted from them, and they were told to move west of the Mississippi. Most of them refused to go, but by 1831 they were induced to cross the river into Iowa. By 1832, however, they were back east of the river, attacking frontier settlements. This started the Black Hawk War, after which they moved west, eventually settling on reservations in Iowa, Kansas, and Oklahoma. In 1990 there were about 4,775 Sac and Fox in the United States.

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